General criminal law is a collective name for all crimes and offences laid down in the Dutch Criminal Code and a few additional laws. Property crimes (theft / embezzlement / fraud), Homicide (murder / manslaughter), sex crimes (rape / sexual assault), Opium Act offences (drugs) and Traffic Act offences (driving licence / alcoholic), among others, all fall within this law.
It is not rare for banks and financial institutions to come into conflict with the Dutch financial criminal law. They are confronted with a complicated legal framework of laws, recommendations, guidelines and suchlike and are regularly under criminal investigation due to a violation of these rules.
Involvement with tax criminal law can arise if an incorrect tax return is examined by the tax inspector who then chooses to hand the relevant file over to the Fiscal Intelligence and Investigation Service (FIOD), rather than imposing an administrative penalty. This often leads to a criminal investigation into the possibility of tax fraud.
Environmental criminal law is increasingly attracting more attention now the protection of the environment gains (political) ground. Companies and individuals are being prosecuted for environmental offences ever more frequently. Dutch environmental criminal law is nevertheless a very specialised sector of the Dutch criminal law, having its roots in an abundance of laws, guidelines and directives.